Perceived Strengths and Difficulties in Adolescents with and without Hearing Impairment

Martin Pinquart, Jens P. Pfeiffer

Abstract


While studies on parent or teacher reports often found young people with hearing loss to show elevated psychological problems, results are less clear when using adolescent self-reports. The aim of the present study was to analyse self-perceived strengths and difficulties of German adolescents with hearing impairment. A sample of 181 adolescents with hearing impairment from eight special schools (mean age: 14.5 years) and 260 hearing peers from three regular schools filled in the German self-report form of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.1 Adolescents with hearing impairment were found to have a higher Total Difficulties Score and to report more conduct problems in particular. However, they also reported higher levels of prosocial behaviour than their hearing peers. In addition, adolescents who are deaf reported more emotional symptoms and peer problems than their hard of hearing peers, and those with acquired hearing loss experienced higher hyperactivity-inattention than adolescents with congenital hearing impairment. Young people with acquired deafness had the highest Total Difficulties Score and were most likely to report emotional symptoms. All between-group differences can be interpreted as small in a statistical sense. About 43% of this group scored above the clinical cut-off for total difficulties and emotional problems, and 50% for peer-problems. We conclude that adolescents with hearing impairment, and those with acquired deafness in particular, may need to be screened for emotional and behaviour problems. Young people with acquired deafness are in particular need of measures aimed at preventing and reducing emotional and peer-related problems, such as promotion of social and emotional competencies.

Keywords: hearing impairment; deaf; psychological health; adjustment; psychological problems; prosocial behaviour


Full Text:

PDF

References


References

Goodman R. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: a research note. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1997; 38: 581–586.

Shargorodsky J, Curhan SG, Curhan GC, Eavey R. Change in prevalence of hearing loss in US adolescents. JAMA. 2010; 304: 772-778.

Hintermair M. Prevalence of socioemotional problems in deaf and hard of hearing children in Germany. Am Ann Deaf. 2007; 152: 320-330.

Hintermair M. Executive functions and behavioral problems in deaf and hard-of-hearing students at general and special schools. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2013; 18: 344-359.

Piskora J, Sarimski K, Hintermair M. Exekutive Funktionen und psychische Auffälligkeiten bei hörgeschädigten Vorschulkindern. [Executive functions and behavior disorders in deaf and hard-of-hearing preschoolers]. HörgeschädigtenPädagogik. 2010; 64: 166–175.

Weiner MT, Day SJ, Galvan D. Deaf and hard of hearing students’ perspectives on bullying and school climate. Am Ann Deaf. 2013; 158: 324–343.

Dammeyer J. Psychosocial development in a Danish population of children with cochlear implants and deaf and hard-of-hearing children. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2009; 15: 50-58.

Fellinger J, Holzinger D, Sattel H, Laucht M. Mental health and quality of life in deaf pupils. Eur J Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008; 17: 414-423.

Hogan A, Shipley M, Strazdins L, Purcell A, Baker E. Communication and behavioural disorders among children with hearing loss increases risk of mental health disorders. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2011; 35: 377-383.

Stevenson J, McCann DC, Law CM, Mullee M, Petrou S, Worsford S, Yuen HM, Kennedy CR. The effect of early confirmation of hearing loss on the behaviour in middle childhood of children with bilateral hearing impairment. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2011; 53: 269–274.

Cornes AJ, Brown PM. Mental health of Australian deaf adolescents: An investigation using an Auslan version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Deafness Educ Int. 2012; 14: 161-175.

Huber M, Kipman U. The mental health of deaf adolescents with cochlear implants compared to their hearing peers. Int J Audiol. 2011; 50: 146-154.

Stevenson J, McCann D, Watkin P, Worsfold S, Kennedy C. The relationship between language development and behaviour problems in children with hearing loss. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2010; 51: 77–83.

Stevenson J, Pimperton H, Kreppner J, Worsfold S, Terlektsi E, Kennedy C. Emotional and behaviour difficulties in teenagers with permanent childhood hearing loss. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017; 101:186-195.

Anmyr L, Larsson K, Olsson M, Freijd A. Strengths and difficulties in children with cochlear implants – Comparing self-reports with reports from parents and teachers. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2011; 76: 1107-1112.

Wake M, Tobin S, Cone-Wesson B, Dahl HH, Gillam L, McCormick L, Poulakis Z, Rickards FW, Saunders K, Ukoumunne OC, Williams J. Slight/mild sensorineural hearing loss in children. Pediatrics. 2006; 118: 1842-1851.

Mejestad L, Heiling K, Svedin CG. Mental health and self-image among deaf and hard of hearing children. Am Ann Deaf. 2009; 153: 504-515.

Stevenson J, Kreppner J, Pimperton H, Worsford S, Kennedy C. Emotional and behavioural difficulties in children and adolescents with hearing impairment: A systematic review and meta‑analysis. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015; 24:477–496.

Pinquart M, Shen Y. Behavior problems in children and adolescents with a chronic physical illness: A meta-analysis. J Pediatr Psychol. 2011; 36: 1003-1016.

Keilman A, Limberger A, Mann WJ. Psychological and physical well-being in hearing-impaired children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007; 71:1747–1752.

Huber M, Pletzer B, Glourgas A, Nickisch A, Kunze S, Ilg A. School relates to mental health problems in adolescents with cochlear implants—Mediation by hearing and family variables. Front Psychol. 2015; 6: 1889.

Munoz-Baell IM, Ruiz MT. Empowering the deaf. Let the deaf be deaf. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2000; 54: 40–44.

Hintermair M. Parental resources, parental stress, and socioemotional development of deaf and hard of hearing children. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ 2006; 11: 493-513.

Kultusministerkonferenz, Sonderpädagogische Förderung in Schulen 2001-2012 [Special education in schools 2001-2012]. Berlin: Author; 2012.

Klasen H, Woerner W, Rothenberger A, Goodman R. Die deutsche Fassung des Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-Deu) – Übersicht und Bewertung erster Validierungs- und Normierungsbefunde [German version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-German)--Overview and evaluation of initial validation and normative results]. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr. 2003; 52: 491-502.

Roberts S, Wright B, Moore K, Smith J, Allgar V, Tennant A. Translation into British Sign Language and validation of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Health Serv Delivery Res. 2015; 3(2): 1-95.

Becker A, Hagenberg N, Roessner V, Woerner W, Rothenberger A. Evaluation of the self-reported SDQ in a clinical setting: Do self-reports tell us more than ratings by adult informants? Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004; 13(Suppl. 2): 17-24.

Feldman HM, Salinas MA, Tang BG. Sensory disorders. In: Elzouki AY, Harfi HA, Nazer HM, Stapleton FB, Oh W, Whitley RJ, ed. Textbook of clinical pediatrics. Berlin: Springer; 2012: 597-612.

Cohen J. A power primer. Psychol Bull. 1992; 112: 155-159.

Niedersächsisches Kultusministerium: Erlass sonderpädagogische Förderung – Niedersachsen [Decree on special education – Lower Saxony]. Hannover: Author. 2005. http://www.mk.niedersachsen.de/download/4431. Accessed February 2014.

Rose SE. Acquired, late onset and progressive hearing loss – Data from one newborn hearing screening site. Arch Dis Child. 2011; 96: A33.

Woodcock KL, Aguayo MO. Deafened people: Adjustment and support. Toronto: University of Toronto Press; 2000.

Greenberg MT, Kusché CA. Preventive intervention for school-age deaf children: The PATHS Curriculum. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 1998; 3: 49–63.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


© 2016 ESMHD - System OJS - Code CaoutchouC